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2  Application specification

In order to specify an application it is necessary to describe its functionalities, the hardware which may be used in order to implement these functionalities, and finally the real-time and embedding constraints the application has to satisfy.

2.1  Functionalities

Functionalities stand for the operations the application has to perform, but also when it is useful, for the data transfers between operations and/or the informations about the relative execution order of the operations and of the data transfers.

Usually, high level languages, often said “application domain oriented”, are used in order to specify the functionalities the application must perform. Such a language is the “entry point” of a programming environment (workshop) usually based on a graphic user interface (GUI) which simplifies the user’s work. There are several possibilities for these languages, but presently modeling languages based on object oriented approach, are the most popular. UML [6] is the best known of these object oriented languages, and several commercial programming environments (tools) are proposed, which are more or less application domain oriented. AIL (Automobile Architecture Implementation Language) is an example of such a programming environment defined by the French car manufacturers and providers, and based on a specialization of UML.

However, although these languages are very useful for specification purposes because of modularity, reutilization, genericity, etc, they do not offer a “denotational semantics” allowing formal verifications, and as it will be underlined later on, optimizations. On the other hand, even though synchronous languages are not object oriented languages they have a denotational semantics, allowing to verify properties in terms of events ordering, very early in the development cycle. This is the reason why in the AAA methodology we chose that the algorithms, directly issued from the application specification, have this semantics. Nevertheless, there are works in progress which aim to interface UML with the synchronous languages Esterel and Signal, in order to associate in a unified framework the best of both worlds.

2.2  Hardware

We address two kinds of hardware: the programmable components and the non programmable components. The first kind of components corresponds to general purpose processors of type RISC and CISC, to processors oriented towards signal and image processing (DSP), or to microcontrollers, used in complex computers (parallel machines, multiprocessors) when they are connected through a shared memory or a network using message passing, and thus providing physical parallelism. Each processor executes a program performing a part or the whole specified application. The second kind corresponds to ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit), a potentially infinite set of logic gates connected together in order to perform the specified application, or to FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), a limited set of logic gates the interconnection of which may be configured more or less rapidly in order to perform the specified application, or only a part of the application if the number of gates of the FPGA is not sufficient. ASICs and FPGAs both provide physical parallelism at the level of each logical gate. Both kinds of components may be mixed leading to a multicomponent. The communications between the different components, whatever their kinds are, must be carefully taken into account in order to offer the best performances because they are crucial in complex multicomponent architectures. Indeed, it is well known that nowadays performances of parallel architectures strongly depend on the performances of their communication mechanisms.

For a programmable component, we are mainly interested in its sequencer because it will execute sequentially the set of the application operations that have been distributed onto this component. This means that the potential parallelism of the algorithm must be locally reduced to match with the physical parallelism of the given architecture. Similarly, the set of data transfers between operations distributed onto different sequencers, is going to be executed sequentially by the communication sequencer, if it exists, belonging to a communication resource, or otherwise by borrowing the operations sequencer. In the first case operations and communications may be executed in parallel whereas in the second case they may not.

Regarding the development process of the application, it is worth noting that the first kind of component induces flexibility and low cost, whereas the second one induces performance but high cost.

2.3  Constraints

As mentioned before, two kinds of constraints may be specified: real-time and embedding ones. Usually, application specification languages do not provide such possibilities, so these constraints are specified at the level of the implementation process. Nevertheless, there are works in progress aiming at specifying at least real-time constraints at the level of the application specification [7]. For example, in the AIL language it is possible to specify latency constraints between a sensor and an actuator. Generally these constraints are called “end-to-end”. Similarly, it is possible to specify a period for each sensor. Embedding constraints are usually taken into account in the CAD tools for the specific integrated circuits. There are only few approaches which allow to take into account accurately all types of hardware resources in the case of multicomponent architectures.

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